The Jane Austen Manuscript Archive

The Jane Austen Manuscript Archive contains images of original manuscripts by Austen from throughout her life. The objects include manuscripts through an index, an introduction to the general archive, and headnotes for each work. Additionally, there are citations and contact information for research and technical inquiries. The index lists the manuscripts by name and location of the physical document. The manuscripts can also be accessed through a search box for key words to find throughout all of the included manuscripts. It can be noted that the search engine includes each manuscript broken down into how it is archived yet grouped so that they may be searched through individually. All of the objects may be accessed through tabs underneath the archive’s header.

The article by Voss and Werner uses the following to define an archive:

 “This space, inseparable from the ensemble of operations deployed within it, confers order on its contents and creates a system whereby an official record of the past may be preserved and transmitted intact. The archive may be, in effect, a political space, a gendered space, a memorial space.”

Therefore, the Jane Austen Manuscript Archive demonstrates archival theory as it is “a memorial space” that remembers the work of Austen in a way that will allow her legacy to never be forgotten and “preserved and transmitted intact,” since each individual physical copy can’t be accessed as easily. The archive allows the significance of the work to continue through time as technology advances the accessibility of ideas.


Final Project: Archaeology and the Age of Technology

Hello Reader,

The following post is part of my final project assessment in my Digital Humanities course; it explains my reasoning for creating this blog in the first place.

For my final project in Intro to Digital Humanities I created a blog through WordPress dedicated to my major, archaeology. I chose to create a blog because I thought it would be interesting to discover whether blogging could be found beneficial within my field. Also my field has the reputation for being conventional, mostly consisting of book work, boring, and out dated. My ambition with this project is to dispute those claims and increase interest into archaeology again. As human beings I think it is essential that we are aware of our heritage and strive to preserve the achievements humanity has accomplished, not only to remember where we have been, but to learn from ourselves and better humanity in the future.

“If you would understand anything, observe its beginning and its development.”

In my blog I focused mainly on incorporating the use of technology, various forms of digital media, and several other topics discussed in class. Furthermore I wrote about my current research, archaeological topics that interested me, excavations and archaeological surveys I am involved in, and several other projects I am working on. To my surprise I found blogging to be beneficial. Before hand I did not regard blogging in an academic sense.

However I found the most innovative features that blogging possessed were receiving/sending feedback and gaining mass exposure. It was flattering to receive feedback and “likes” from fellow archaeologists, professors, researchers, and other individuals from across the globe. Not only was it flattering, but the mass scale of exposure was astonishing. To further increase my blog exposure I posted links and attention grabbing prompts within the Archaeology Page on FaceBook. It was intriguing to witness how instantaneously I received responses. Even more surprisingly once I really got into blogging I had accumulated 93 homepage views in a single day, a current amount of 14 Word Press subscribers, 1,625 FaceBook subscribers, and an unexpected total of 737 total homepage views within only two months. After viewing these statistics it was clear to me blogging can most definitely be used academically and benefit any individual in any major.

I found the responses to be additionally useful and encouraging. I was offered guidance, given encouragement, suggested solutions to my questions, provided other people’s opinions and I found it rather entertaining to tee off controversial debates. Blogging made it possible to further expose my mind to new thoughts and ideas that I otherwise wouldn’t have come across. I think it is important that individuals in all fields of study take advantage of technology and what it can offer. Technology such as blogging encourages interaction and compels an individual to acquire knowledge through additional means and further expand one’s thought process.


About Author
Site, Ayn Abu Nukhaylah: TU Page
Digital Humanities Course
Archaeology FaceBook Page

Blog Posts (beginning from oldest to most recent)

Hello World
Multimedia and Archaeology
Archaeology Podcast
What’s Your Archive?
Mapping & Social Network Analysis in Archaeology
Archaeological Humor
New Manners of Thinking
Digitalization of Text
Reading & Textuality in Archaeology
Archaeological Survey in Hominy, Oklahoma
Archaeological Time Machine?? Think POSSIBLE

Thanks for reading and THANK YOU to all of my followers and those of you who responded to my posts! You all made this a very positive experience and I look forward to bettering my blogging potentiality. 🙂

Ashley Brown

The Nature of Text

I was particularly interested in the website, Dreaming Methods. The Digital Fiction Projects were impressive and innovative in presenting text in a nontraditional way. I first viewed the project called, The Diary. It is a fictional diary based on an eight year old girl named Anne Sykes. I found the presentation to be rather depressing in nature. The media attached along to the text contributed to the perception of depression. I found the images to be rather dark and creepy; the music full of rage, anger, and suspense. Unlike a physical book the text is presented in an extremely alternative manner. The text is out of order, is presented to the reader at various different paces, and the reader can interact with the various objects within the project. Moreover I found it rather difficult to follow along with the story line, I was distracted by the music and various interactions, and was not able to read all of the text because it simply vanished before I could. However I think that this text presentation technique can be useful and ultimately bring alive a literary work in an effective way. After further analysis of The Diary I came to the confusion that it was the author’s intention to present this text in such a contradictory manner. The contradictions I had with the lab created feelings of confusion, annoyance, and so on. These emotions put the reader in the place of the character by causing one to feel a taste of the emotions that the character does. Along with the obvious interactions the metaphysical ones are the most effective and bring the literary work to new potential.

Ashley Brown


Andy Campbell “Clearance” made you think that you had some control over where you were headed but it just gave you one path, so you were lead to what he wanted you to see.  I think as a text it was cool because you were more interactive and it was like you were in the story and in that sense the author is able to depict what they want you to see, unlike a book where you use your own imagination. I think the text is a little harder to read because there are so many things going on, but when you read a book your focus just on the text.

Reading & Textuality

What is hypertext and hypermedia?

According to Ted Nelson who coined both the terms in the 1960’s:

“Hypertext” has become generally accepted for branching and responding text, but the corresponding word “hypermedia”, meaning complexes of branching and responding graphics, movies and sound – as well as text – is much less used.— Nelson, Literary Machines, 1992

How can hypertext and hypermedia be incorporated into my discipline of anthropology and archaeology?

Subject matter in the field of anthropology is profoundly vast. Therefore any sort of technology that simplifies the effort of research would be most appreciated by those who are researching. Rather than lugging around a profuse amount of publications, hypertext and hypermedia enable a researcher access to even more information at their convenience and at their immediate demand. Not only does this benefit researchers of anthropology, but any field for that matter.

My focus in anthropology is in prehistory, near/middle-eastern archaeology. All of the cultures during prehistory did not possess a writing system; therefore there is no written record that exists to inform one on the culture’s way of life. Archaeologists have to act as if they were detectives at a crime scene and piece together the information to reconstruct what took place in the past. Hypertext and hypermedia could be very useful in my study. They allow me to search through an almost infinite amount of information as well as save time that it would have taken to find the same information in a library. This saved time can now be used to further work on my research and speed up the date in which the results are to be published. Also by using hypertext and hypermedia I can interact with others who are working on similar subjects. I can receive instant feedback, opinions, and advice from other researchers. This is something a physical book cannot provide, well at least to this extent and speed.

There are contradictions however. According to the article, Ancient History, Archaeology and Hypertext Publishing:

The first problem is one which you may well have already overcome. Reading papers on the internet is a very bad idea, unless you actively seek out a migraine. A slightly more spurious argument against internet publishing is that you cannot read electronic papers in the bath. This is both wrong (if you own a PDA) and irrelevant. The costs of printed journals are astronomical…The cynic will point out that any web page can be printed. The best argument for not doing so from the browser is that it often looks awful.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License.

Additionally problems exist in the accuracy of the hypertext and hypermedia. Often times on accident, information is inaccurately recorded and this can severely hinder the intended interpretation and meaning of the information. Another problem with inaccuracy is that anyone can instantly publish information onto the internet and a researcher may come across the information believing the claims are true. This can be easily exemplified within the website of Wikipedia.

In conclusion:

Despite the contradictions I have mentioned I think hypertext and hypermedia can help those in my field and virtually any other. But when using these technologies one should be aware of these contradictions and take them into account when researching.

Ashley Brown

Digital Text Copies: Pros and Cons

Digital text is the process of copying the original, physical text of a work of literature and digitizing it. Currently, Google is attempting to digitize every book on the planet and making them UNIVERSALLY available and FREE. They are doing it, but also they are breaking copyright laws and not conducting the process as accurately as they should. This all sounds great in theory, but everything has a downside.

-Consumers no longer have to pay for books
-Publications are available worldwide
-The physical texts which will eventually deteriorate, survive in digital form
-The reader no longer has to carry heavy books; they can be read on any electronic device

-Authors lose money that they would’ve earned selling the books
-Violation of copyright laws
-Damaging of the physical literature due to the copying process
-Reader loses the physical context that touching the literature provides
-Editing texts into a digital form may take away from aspects the author may want to express with the physicality of the literature

Despite the downsides of digitizing text I think this is a method of preserving humanity. For example, many texts that are thousands of years old or even decades old are deteriorating at a fast pace. Once they are gone, they are gone FOREVER. However by digitizing these works of literature we are able to preserve the text. Although the physicality, originality, and other aspects will be forever lost, partial preservation better than none at all. In my field of archaeology, many of the written artifacts, arts, etc. are usually discovered in an already severe state of decomposition. Due to their fragility the process of digitalization can be very damaging, even if done properly and with extreme care. However it is more important in my opinion that they are digitized so that they can surpass their natural decomposition and become available for many years afterward. This digitalization would be beneficial to the future of humanity.

“Know from whence you came. If you know whence you came, there are absolutely no limitations to where you can go.”
-James Arthur

Ashley Brown


This class was the first time I had ever been on an archive unless I got an article for one on a paper or something and didn’t know it. I think it is a very good idea to digitize our history seeing how it lasts longer and will not be lost in the future.


The scholar archives like Rosetti, I found to be more educational. The information was not opinionated and was alot like what you would read out of a book. Rosetti was very easy to navigate and the tabs at the top made it very easy to find exactly what you were looking for.


I really digged into the Stolen Time Archive and it was a very fun and friendly way of learning. I almost felt as if I was playing a video game. It took me a minute though to get the hang of what I was doing, I just had to take a guess and push some buttons but after a few minutes you get the hang of it.


I think the scholary was easier to navigate than the experimental.(Mainly the stolen time the search engine part of the proust archive makes it more user friendly.) I also think that the scholary was more broad of a topic like an era in history vs a single topic or place like the experimentals.

Both kinds of archives can be very useful, the trick is in finding the right archive that covers the topic your looking for.